Birding

birding

LanternStay is rated as one of the best bird watching spot for the serious bird watchers in Wayanad.

Approximately 350 types of birds adds a total new dimension to the environment of the forest. The twittering and chirping of these creatures forms the mysterious backdrop of the forest.

With Wayanad having some thick evergreen vegetation and hills, you can see many birds of the western ghats in this region. Here a small incomplete list of birds for a birding trip to Wayanad:

Asian Fairy Blue Bird, Scarlet Minivet, Emerald Dove, Yellow Browed Bulbul, Bar winged flycatcher shrike, Black lored tit, Chestnut tailed starlings, Forest Wagtail, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Plum headed parakeets, lorikeets, and many many more.

We listed 60 of our locality birds.

1. Asian brown flycatcher (Muscicapalatirostris)

Asian brown flycatcher is a small passerinebird in the flycatcher family Muscicapidae. This is an insectivorous species which breeds in Japan, eastern Siberia and the Himalayas. It is migratory and winters in tropical southern Asia from southern India and Sri Lanka east to Indonesia.

Description:
This species is 13 cm long, including the cocked tail. The adult has grey-brown upperparts, which become greyer as the plumage ages, and whitish underparts with brown-tinged flanks. Young birds have scaly brown upperparts, head and breast.

2. Asian fairy-bluebird (Irena puella)

This fairy-bluebird is found in forests across tropical southern Asia from the Himalayan foothills, India and Sri Lanka east through Indochina, the Greater Sundas and Palawan (Philippines). Two or three eggs are laid in a small cup nest in a tree.

Description:
The Asian fairy bluebird measures 24 to 27 centimetres (9.4 to 10.6 in) in length. The iris is crimson and eyelids pinkish; the bill, legs and claws are black, and mouth a flesh – colour. Marked sexual dimorphism is evident. The male is a shining ultramarine-blue with lilac reflections on its upper plumage, lesser wing coverts, and under tail coverts, while the sides of its head and the whole lower plumage are deep black; greater wing-coverts, quills, and tail black, and some of the coverts tipped with blue, and the middle tail-feathers glossed with blue.

3. Nilgiri flycatcher (Eumyiasalbicaudatus)

The Nilgiri flycatcher is an Old World flycatcher with a very restricted range in the hills of southern India. It was formerly referred to as the Nilgiriverditer flycatcher because of its similarity to the verditer flycatcher, a winter migrant to the Nilgiris, which however has distinct dark lores and a lighter shade of blue. There are two small white patches at the base of the tail. It is found mainly in the higher altitude shola forests of the Western Ghats and the Nilgiris.

Description:
This small and somewhat long-tailed flycatcher is about 13 centimetres (5.1 in). It is dark steely indigo blue with some violet-blue on the forehead and darker lores. It is much darker than the verditer flycatcher and does not have as strong a contrast in the pale face and black lores. The female is duller with dark brown on the upperparts and dark grey below.

4. Coppersmith barbet (Megalaimahaemacephala)

The coppersmith barbet is a bird with crimson forehead and throat which is best known for its metronomic call that has been likened to a coppersmith striking metal with a hammer. It is a resident found in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Like other barbets, they chisel out a hole inside a tree to build their nest. They are mainly fruit eating but will take sometimes insects, especially winged termites.

Description:
This species of barbet is found to overlap in range with several larger barbets in most of South Asia. In the Western Ghats, it partly overlaps with the Malabar barbet which is of a very similar size but having a more rapid call. The red forehead, yellow eye-ring and throat patch with streaked underside and green upper parts, it is fairly distinctive. Juveniles are duller and lack the red patches. The sexes are alike. The Sri Lankan form has more black on the face, more red on the breast and darker streaks on the underside.

5. Pale-billed flowerpecker (Dicaeumerythrorhynchos)

Pale-billed flower pecker is a tiny bird that feeds on nectar and berries, found in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The bird is common especially in urban gardens with berry bearing trees. They have a rapid chipping call and the pinkish curved beak separates it from other species in the region.

Description:
This is a tiny bird, 8 cm long, and is one of the smallest birds occurring in most parts of southern India and Sri Lanka. The bird is plain brownish to olive green. The underside is buff olive and does not contrast greatly with the upper parts and not whitish as in the Nilgiri flower pecker of the Western Ghats and Nilgiri hills nor is it streaked as in the thick-billed flower pecker.

6. Oriental white-eye (Zosteropspalpebrosus)

Oriental white-eye is a small passerine bird in the white-eyefamily. It is a resident breeder in open woodland in tropical Asia, east from the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia, extending to Indonesia and Malaysia. They forage in small groups, feeding on nectar and small insects. They are easily identified by the distinctive white eye-ring and overall yellowish upperparts.

Description:
This bird is small (about 8–9 cm long) with yellowish olive upper parts, a white eye ring, yellow throat and vent. The belly is whitish grey but may have yellow in some subspecies. The sexes look similar. The population in the Western Ghats and hills of southern India is placed in nilgiriensis while salimalii of the Eastern Ghats hills is sometimes subsumed into the nominate race.

7. Square-tailed bulbul (Hypsipetesganeesa)

Square-tailed bulbul is a species of songbird in the Pycnonotidae family. It is found in southwest India and Sri Lanka. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It was previously treated as a subspecies of the black bulbul.The species has no black streak behind the eye and on the ear-coverts that is present in the black bulbul. The Sri Lankan humii has a heavier bill.

Description:
In Southern India, nesting activity begins from February and rises to a peak in May. The eggs hatch after an incubation period of 12 to 13 days and the chicks fledge after about 11 or 12 days. Nest predators include birds of prey (black-winged kite), Adults of square-tailed bulbul have been known to be preyed on by the crested goshawk. Populations make movements in response to the monsoon.

8. White-cheeked barbet (Megalaimaviridis)

White-cheeked barbetis a species of barbet found in southern India. It is very similar to the more widespread brown-headed barbet (Megalaimazeylanica) but this species has a distinctive supercilium and a broad white cheek stripe below the eye and is endemic to the forest areas of the Western Ghats and adjoining hills. The brown-headed barbet has an orange eye-ring but the calls are very similar and the two species occur together in some of the drier forests to the east of the Western Ghats.

Description:
Like many other barbets of Asia, these are green, sit still and perch upright making them difficult to spot. During the breeding season which begins at the start of summer their calls become loud and constant especially in the mornings. The call, a monotonous Kot-roo … Kotroo… starting with an explosive trrr is not easily differentiated from that of the brown-headed barbet.

9. Grey-headed canary-flycatcher (Culicicapaceylonensis)

Grey-headed canary-flycatcher is a species of small flycatcher-like bird found in tropical Asia. It has a square crest, a grey hood and yellow under parts. They are found mainly in forested habitats where they often join other birds in mixed-species foraging flocks. Pairs are often seen as they forage for insects by making flycatcher-like sallies and calling aloud.

Description:
Across their range, populations differ in the shades of the colours and vary slightly in dimensions and several of these have been designated as subspecies. The nominate subspecies breeds in peninsular India in the hills of the Western Ghats, Nilgiris, central Indiaand the Eastern Ghats and Sri Lanka. This bird was earlier considered to be an Old World flycatcher in spite of its odd crest, colours and nature of vocalization.

10. Malabar whistling thrush (Myophonushorsfieldii)

Malabar whistling thrush is a whistling thrush in the family Muscicapidae. They are also known locally by the name of whistling schoolboy for the whistling calls that they make at dawn that have a very human quality. The species is a resident in the Western Ghats and associated hills of peninsular India including central India and parts of the Eastern Ghats.

Description:
This large thrush appears blackish with shiny patches of blue on the forehead and shoulders. The blue becomes visible only in oblique lighting. The bill and legs are black. The sexes are indistinguishable and juveniles are more brownish and lack the blue forehead.

11. Common rosefinch (Carpodacuserythrinus)

Common rosefinch is the most widespread and common rosefinch of Asia and Europe.

Description:
The common rosefinch is larger than a sparrow. It has a stout and conical bill. The mature male has brilliant rosy-carmine head, breast and rump; heavy bill; dark brown wings with two indistinct bars, and a white belly. Females and young males are dull-colored with yellowish-brown above, brighter on the rump and greyer on head; buff below.

12. Verditer flycatcher (Eumyiasthalassinus)

Verditer flycatcher is an Old World flycatcher found in the Indian subcontinent, especially in the Lower Himalaya. It is named after its distinctive shade of copper-sulphate blue and has a dark patch between the eyes and above the bill base. This species was earlier placed in the genus Muscicapa and it has been suggested that it is closer to theNiltava flycatchers.

Description:
The adult males are intense blue on all areas of the body, except for the black eye-patch and grey vent. Adult females and sub-adults are lighter blue. They are also interesting among the flycatchers in that they forage above the canopy level and perching on electric wires or exposed tree top branches.

13. Nilgiri Thrush (Zootheradaumaneilgherriensis)

Resident. Western Ghats. It has darker, browner and more uniform upper parts than the scaly thrush. This bird has a larger bill, and face is plainer and more regularly marked with black. It’s habitat is dense evergreen forest and sholas.

14. Red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotusjocosus)

Red-whiskered bulbulis a passerine bird found in Asia. It is a member of the bulbul family. It is a resident frugivorefound mainly in tropical Asia. It has been introduced in many tropical areas of the world where populations have established themselves. It feeds on fruits and small insects and they conspicuously perch on trees and their calls are a loud three or four note call. They are very common in hill forests and urban gardens within its range.

Description:
The red-whiskered bulbul is about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length. It has brown upper-parts and whitish underparts with buff flanks and a dark spur running onto the breast at shoulder level. It has a tall pointed black crest, red face patch and thin black moustachial line. The tail is long and brown with white terminal feather tips, but the vent area is red.The loud and evocative call is a sharp kink-a-joo and the song is a scolding chatter. It is more often heard than seen, but will often perch conspicuously especially in the mornings when they call from the tops of trees. The life span is about 11 years.

15. Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotuscafer)

Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotuscafer) is a member of the bulbul family of passerines. It is resident breeder across the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka extending east to Burma and parts of Tibet. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world and has established itself in the wild on several Pacific islands including Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, and Hawaii. It has also established itself in parts of Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, Argentina and New Zealand. It is included in the list of the world’s 100 worstinvasive alien species

Description:
The red-vented bulbul is easily identified by its short crest giving the head a squarish appearance. The body is dark brown with a scaly pattern while the head is darker or black. The rump is white while the vent is red. The black tail is tipped in white. The Himalayan races have a more prominent crest and are more streaked on the underside.

16. Black-naped oriole (Orioluschinensis)

Black-naped oriole is a bird of the oriole family and is found in many parts of Asia. Unlike the golden oriole which only has a short and narrow eye-stripe, the black-naped oriole has the stripe broadening and joining at the back of the neck. Males and females are very similar although the wing lining of the female is more greenish. The bill is pink and is stouter than in the golden oriole.

Description:
The black-naped oriole is medium sized and overall golden with a strong pinkish bill and a broad black mask and nape. The adult male has the central tail feathers tipped yellow and the lateral ones are more broadly yellow. The female has the mantle colour more greenish or olive. The juvenile has a streaked underside. The nestling has dull greenish with brown streaks. The head and nape are more yellowish and the undertail coverts are yellow.

17. White-bellied blue flycatcher (Cyornispallipes)

White-bellied blue flycatcher is a small passerinebird in the flycatcher family Muscicapidae. It is endemic to the Western Ghats (including the Nilgiris) of southwest India.

Description:
This flycatcher is about 13 centimetres (5.1 in) long and has a longish beak. It forages in the undergrowth in the shade of dense forest canopy where it makes aerial forays to capture insects. The male is indigo blue with ultramarine blue supercilium and forehad. The lores and face are dark grey. The belly is white and bordered by smoky grey wash. The female is olive brown above with whitish lores. The rufous throat and breast fades to white towards the belly. The female has a chestnut tail and can be told apart from other flycatchers like by the lack of the black and white tail pattern.

18. Black drongo (Dicrurusmacrocercus)

Blackdrongo (Dicrurusmacrocercus) is a small Asianpasserinebird of the drongo familyDicruridae. It is a common resident breeder in much of tropical southern Asia from southwest Iran through India and Sri Lanka east to southern China and Indonesia. The species is known for its aggressive behaviour towards much larger birds, such as crows, never hesitating to dive-bomb any birds of prey that invadesits territory. This behaviour earns it the informal name of King Crow. Smaller birds often nest in the well-guarded vicinity of a nesting black drongo.

Description:
This bird is glossy black with a wide fork to the tail. Adults usually have a small white spot at the base of the gape. The iris is dark brown (not crimson as in the similar ashy drongo). The sexes cannot be told apart in the field. Juveniles are brownish and may have some white barring or speckling towards the belly and vent, and can be mistaken for the white-bellied drongo. They are aggressive and fearless birds.

19. Grey-fronted green pigeon (Treronaffinis)

Grey-fronted green pigeon is a pigeon in the genus Treron. It is found in the forests of the Western Ghats in India. Many authorities have split the species from the pompadour green pigeon complex.

Description:
The grey-fronted green pigeon usually occurs singly or in small groups. Its flight is fast and direct, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings that are characteristic of pigeons in general. It eats the seeds and fruits of a wide variety of plants. It builds a stick nest in a tree and lays two white eggs.

20. Grey wagtail (Motacillacinerea)

Grey wagtail is a small member of the wagtail family,Motacilidael. The species looks similar to the yellow wagtail but has the yellow on its underside restricted to the throat and vent. Breeding males have a black throat. The species is widely distributed, with several populations breeding in Europe and Asia and migrating to tropical regions in Asia and Africa. They are usually seen on open marshy ground or meadows where they walk solitarily or in pairs along the ground, capturing insects that are disturbed. Like other wagtails, they frequently wag their tail and fly low with undulations and they have a sharp call that is often given in flight.

Description:
This slim wagtail has a narrow white supercilium and a broken eye ring. The upperparts are grey and the yellow vent contrasting with whitish underparts makes it distinctive. The breeding male has a black throat that is edged by whitish moustachial stripes. They forage singly or in pairs on meadows or on shallow water marshes. They also use rocks in water and will often perch on trees. They have a clear sharp call note and the song consists of trills.

21. Black-and-orange flycatcher (Ficedulanigrorufa)

Black-and-orange flycatcher is a species of flycatcher endemic to the central and southern Western Ghats, the Nilgiri and Palani hill ranges in southern India. It is unique among the Ficedula flycatchers in having rufous coloration on its back and prior to molecular studies was suggested to be related to the chats and thrushes.

Description:
A distinctly coloured bird found mainly in the high-elevation areas of the Western Ghats, the Nilgiris, thePalnis and associated hill ranges. The male is distinctly black headed with black wings. The female has the black replaced by dark brown and has a light eye-ring. They are usually seen singly or in pairs.

22. Orange minivet (Pericrocotusflammeus)

Orangeminivet is a species of bird in the cuckooshrike family, Campephagidae. It is found in southeast India and Sri Lanka. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the scarlet minivet.

Description:
The male has black upperparts and head, and orange underparts, tail edges, rump and wing patches. The shape and colour of the wing patches and the shade or orange in the male varies across populations. The female is grey above, with yellow underparts (including the face), tail edges, rump and wing patches.

23. Yellow-browed bulbul (Acritillasindica)

Yellow-browed bulbul is a species of bulbul found in the forests of southern India and Sri Lanka. It is mainly yellow on the underside and olive above with a distinct yellow brow. They are easily located by their loud calls but tend to skulk within foliage below the forest canopy.

Description:
This bulbul is about 20 cm (7 inches) long, lacks a crest and has the upperparts olive green with a prominent yellow brow and goggle with the underparts being all yellow. The sexes do not differ in plumage. The bill is black and the iris is reddish brown. The population in the northern Western Ghats (ssp. icterica) is paler yellow than the populations further south (ssp. indica).

24. Rusty-tailed flycatcher (Muscicaparuficauda)

Rusty-tailed flycatcher is a small passerine bird in the flycatcher family Muscicapidae. It is found in the mainly in the northern regions of the Indian Subcontinent and some parts of southwest India, as well as pockets of Central Asia including Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The species is partially migratory, with the Central Asian populations migrating to India, as far as the southwest Indian coast along the Arabian Sea, to Karnataka and Kerala.

Other populations, especially those across the lower Himalayas, remain in their native regions year-round and breed there. The species is also an occasional vagrant to other areas in India.

25. Malabar grey hornbill (Ocycerosgriseus)

Malabar grey hornbill is a hornbill endemic to the Western Ghats and associated hills of southern India. They have a large beak but lack the casque that is prominent in some other hornbill species. They are found mainly in dense forest and around rubber, arecanut or coffee plantations. They move around in small groups, feeding on figs and other forest fruits. Their loud cackling and laughing call makes them familiar to people living in the region.

Description:
The Malabar grey hornbill is a large bird, but mid-sized for a hornbill, at 45 to 58 cm (18 to 23 in) in length. It has a 23 cm (9.1 in) tail and pale or yellowish to orange bill. Males have a reddish bill with a yellow tip, while the females have a plain yellow bill with black at the base of the lower mandible and a black stripe along the culmen. They show a broad whitish superciliary band above the eye, running down to the neck. They fly with a strong flap and glide flight and hop around heavily on the outer branches of large fruiting trees. They have brown-grey wings, a white carpal patch and black primary flight feathers tipped with white.

26. Orange-headed thrush (zootheracitrinacyanotus)

Orange-headed thrush is a bird in the thrush family.It is common in well-wooded areas of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Most populations are resident. The species shows a preference for shady damp areas, and like many Zoothera thrushes, can be quite secretive.

The orange-headed thrush is omnivorous, eating a wide range of insects, earthworms and fruit. It nests in trees but does not form flocks.The male of this small thrush has uniform grey upperparts, and an orange head and underparts. The females and young birds have browner upper parts.

27. Indian pitta (Pitta brachyura)

Indian pitta is a passerinebird native to the Indian subcontinent. It inhabits scrub jungle, deciduous and dense evergreen forest. Breeding in the forests of the Himalayas, hills of central and western India, they migrate to other parts of the peninsula in winter. Although very colourful, they are usually shy and hidden in the undergrowth where the hop and pick insects on the forest floor. They have a distrinctive two note whistling call which may be heard at dawn and dusk. It is considered Least Concern by IUCN as its range is very large.

Description:
Pittas are among the few Old Worldsuboscine birds. The Indian pitta is the basal member of a distinct clade that includes many of the Oriental species. The Indian pitta is a small stubby-tailed bird that is mostly seen on the floor of forests or under dense undergrowth, foraging on insects in leaf litter. It has long, strong legs, a very short tail and stout bill, with a buff coloured crown stripe, black coronal stripes, a thick black eye stripe and white throat and neck.

28. Velvet-fronted nuthatch (Sittafrontalis)

Velvet-fronted nuthatch is a small passerinebird found in southern Asia from Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka east to south China and Indonesia. It is a member of the nuthatch family Sittidae.

Description:
It is a resident breeder of all types of woods, although open evergreen forest is the optimal habitat.It has the ability, like other nuthatches, to climb down trees, unlike species such as woodpeckers which can only go upwards. It is an active feeder on insects and spiders, and may be found in mixed feeding flocks with other passerines.

29. White-bellied drongo (Dicruruscaerulescens)

White-bellieddrongo is a species of drongo found only on the Indian Subcontinent in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Like other members of the family Dicruridae they are insectivorous and is mainly black in colour but with a white belly and vent. Young birds are however all black and can be confused with the black drongo although smaller and more compact in appearance and the subspecies found in Sri Lanka has white restricted to the vent.

Description:
This drongo is black without any glossy on the upperside and greyish on the throat and breast while the belly and vent are entirely white in the Indian form which is the nominate subspecies. The fork of the tail is less deep than in the black drongo which is often seen in the same habitats. Young black drongo’s can have a lot of white on the underside but it is usually scaly in appearance.

30. Ashy drongo (Dicrurusleucophaeus)

Ashydrongo is a species of bird in the drongo family Dicruridae. It is found widely distributed across South and Southeast Asia with several populations that vary in the shade of grey, migration patterns and in the size or presence of a white patch around the eye.

Description:
The adult ashy drongo is mainly dark grey, and the tail is long and deeply forked, There are a number of subspecies varying in the shade of the grey plumage. Some subspecies have white markings on the head. Young birds are dull brownish grey.

31. Bronzed drongo (Dicrurusaeneus)

Bronzeddrongo is a small Indomalayanbird belonging to the drongo group. They are resident in the forests of the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. They capture insects flying in the shade of the forest canopy by making aerial sallies from their perches. They are very similar to the other drongos of the region but are somewhat smaller and compact with differences in the fork depth and the patterns of gloss on their feathers.

Description:
This drongo is somewhat smaller than the black drongo and has more metallic gloss with a spangled appearance on the head, neck and breast. The lores are velvety and the ear coverts are duller. The tail is slender and well forked with the outer tail feathers flaring outward slightly. Immatures have their axillaries tipped in white.

32. Black-winged kite (Elanuscaeruleus)

Black-winged kite is a small diurnal bird of prey in the family Accipitridae best known for its habit of hovering over open grasslands in the manner of the much smaller kestrels.

Description:
This long-winged raptor is predominantly grey or white with black shoulder patches, wing tips and eye stripe. The long falcon-like wings extend beyond the tail when the bird is perched. In flight, the short and square tail is visible and it is not forked as in the typical kites of the genus Milvus. When perched, often on roadside wires, it often adjusts its wings and jerks its tail up and down as if to balance itself. The sexes are alike in plumage. Their large forward-facing eyes and velvety plumage are characters that are shared with owls and the genus itself has been considered as a basal group within the Accipitridae.

33. Indian scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinushorsfieldii)

Indian scimitar babbler is an Old World babbler. It is found in peninsular India in a range of forest habitats. They are most often detected by their distinctive call which is an antiphonal duet produced by pairs within small groups. They are often hard to see as they forage through dense vegetation.

Description:
The most distinctive feature of this 22 cm long bird is the long down-curved yellow bill which is blackish at the base of the upper mandible. It has a striking head pattern, with a long white supercilum above a broad black band through the eye. The white throat and breast contrast with the dark greyish brown on the upperside and dark grey to black on most of the underside. The tail is broad, long and graduated. They have short, round wings and being weak fliers are rarely seen flying in the open.

34. Besra (Accipiter virgatus)

The besra is a widespread resident breeder in dense forests throughout southern Asia, ranging from the Indian subcontinent eastwards across Southeast Asia and into East Asia. It nests in trees, building a new nest each year. It lays 2 to 5 eggs.

Description:
This bird is a medium-sized raptor (29 to 36 cm) with short broad wings and a long tail, both adaptations to fast manoeuvring. The normal flight of this species is a characteristic “flap–flap–glide”, and the barred underwings are a distinction from the shikra, A. badius.This species is like a darker version of the widespread shikra, but all plumages have a dark vertical throat stripe. The adult male besra has dark blue-grey upperparts, and is white, barred reddish below. The larger female is browner above than the male.

35. Shikra (Accipiter badius)

Shikra is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae found widely distributed in Asia and Africa where it is also called the little banded goshawk. The African forms may represent a separate species but have usually been considered as subspecies of the shikra.

Description:
The shikra is a small raptor (26–30 cm long) and like most other Accipiter hawks, this species has short rounded wings and a narrow and somewhat long tail. Adults are whitish on the underside with fine rufous bars while the upperparts are grey. The lower belly is less barred and the thighs are whitish. Males have a red iris while the females have a less red (yellowish orange) iris and brownish upperparts apart from heavier barring on the underparts. The females are slightly larger. The mesial stripe on the throat is dark but narrow.

36. Yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedulazanthopygia)

Yellow-rumped flycatcher is a species of flycatcher found in Asia. A distinctive species with almost no look-alike other than the narcissus flycatcher.

Description:
In all plumages the yellow rump is distinctive. The white supercilium of the male is distinctive, separating it from the narcissus flycatcher and the Chinese flycatcher. Females and first year males are olive grey above with blackish tail. The breeding area of the species is in Eastern Asia. North Korea and China. The nesting in Xiaoxingan region is mainly in May and June. They breed mainly in low valleys at the base of hills. The home range of a pair can be about 2000-5000 sq. m. The nest is built in about three to four days by the female alone. The cluctch is about 4-7 eggs which are incubated by the female for about 11–12 days.

37. Nilgiri blue robin (Myiomela major)

Nilgiri blue robin also known as a kind of bird in the Muscicapidae family endemic to the Shola forests of the higher hills of Western Ghats. This small bird is found on the forest floor and undergrowth of dense forest patches sheltered in the valleys of montane grassland, a restricted and threatened habitat.

Description:
This chat-like bird is long-legged and appears chunky with its short tail and wing. Although sharing similar habits and shape, the two species differ in plumage and both may show slight sexual dimorphism. Females may differ from males in iris colour at least in M. albiventris. The Nilgiri blue robin (M. major) has the lores black and the upperside, the throat, breast are dark slaty blue but the lower plumage is rufous. The centre of the belly is buffy white. The brow is not as well-marked as in the other species and is diffuse bluish.

38. Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Common kestrel is a bird of preyspecies belonging to the kestrel group of the falconfamilyFalconidae. It is also known as the European kestrel. In Britain, where no other kestrel species occurs, it is generally just called “the kestrel“.

Description:
This species occurs over a large range. It is widespread in Europe, Asia, and Africa, as well as occasionally reaching the east coast of North America. But although it has colonized a few oceanic islands, vagrant individuals are generally rare; in the whole of Micronesia for example, the species was only recorded twice each on Guam and Saipan in the Marianas.

39. Grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii)

Grey junglefowl is one of the wild ancestors of domestic fowl together with the red junglefowl and other junglefowls. This species is endemic to India, and even today it is found mainly in peninsular India and towards the northern boundary. It sometimes hybridize in the wild with red junglefowl. They also hybridize readily in captivity and sometimes with free-range domestic fowl kept in habitations close to forests.

Description:
The male has a black cape with ochre spots and the body plumage on a grey ground colour is finely patterned. The elongated neck feathers are dark and end in a small, hard, yellowish plate; this peculiar structure making them popular for making high-grade artificial flies. The female is duller and has black and white streaking on the underparts and yellow legs.

40. Greater racket-tailed drongo (Dicrurusparadiseus)

Greater racket-tailed drongo is a medium-sized Asianbird which is distinctive in having elongated outer tail feathers with webbing restricted to the tips. They are placed along with other drongos in the family Dicruridae. They are conspicuous in the forest habitats often perching in the open and by attracting attention with a wide range of loud calls that include perfect imitations of many other birds.

Description:
In most of its range in Asia, this is the largest of the drongo species and is readily identifiable by the distinctive tail rackets and the crest of curled feather that begin in front of the face above the beak and along the crown to varying extents according to the subspecies. The tail with twirled rackets is distinctive and in flight it can appear as if two large bees were chasing a black bird. In the eastern Himalayas the species can be confused with the lesser racket-tailed drongo, however the latter has flat rackets with the crest nearly absent.

41. Black eagle (Ictinaetusmalaiensis)

Black eagle is a bird of prey. Like all eagles, it is in the family Accipitridae, and is the only member of the genus Ictinaetus. They soar over forests in the hilly regions of tropical Asia and hunt mammals and birds, particularly at their nests. They are easily identified by their widely splayed and long primary “fingers”, the characteristic silhouette, slow flight and yellow ceres and legs that contrast with their dark feathers.

Description:
The black eagle breeds in tropical Asia. Race perniger (Hodgson, 1836) is found in the Himalayan foothills west through Nepal into northeastern Murree in the forests of the Eastern and Western Ghats in peninsular India and Sri Lanka.The species also extends into the Aravalli range of northwestern India.
The black eagle is a large raptor at about 70–80 cm in length and 164–178 cm in wingspan, with a weight of between 1000 and 1600 grams.

42. Common woodshrike (Tephrodornispondicerianus)

Commonwoodshrike is a species of bird found in Asia. It has been placed in the cuckoshrike (Campephagidae) and helmetshrike (Prionopidae) families in the past and is now considered a member of the family Tephrodornithidae. It is small and ashy brown with a dark cheek patch and a broad white brow. It is found across Asia mainly in the thin forest and scrub habitats.

Description:
The common woodshrike is dully ashy brown and like other woodshrikes has a large head with a strong hooked beak. They have a broad creamy brow above a dark cheek patch and white outer tail feathers contrasting with their dark tail.

43. Malabar woodshrike (Tephrodornissylvicola)

Malabar woodshrike is a species of bird in the woodshrikefamilyTephrodornithidae. It is found in western India. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of the large woodshrike.

44. Forest wagtail (Dendronanthusindicus)

Forest wagtail is a medium-sized passerinebird in the wagtail family Motacillidae. It has a distinctive plumage that sets it apart from other wagtails and has the habit of wagging its tail sideways unlike the usual up and down movements of the other wagtail species. It is the only wagtail species that nests in trees. They are found mainly in forested habitats, breeding in the temperate parts of east Asia and wintering across tropical Asia from India to Indonesia.

Description:
This is a distinctive wagtail, the only one placed in the genusDendronanthus (all other wagtails are placed in Motacilla). The forest wagtail is 18 cm in length, a slender bird with a long tail. The back and crown are olive brown, and the wings are black with two yellow wing bars and white tertial edges. There is a white supercilium, above a dark stripe through the eye. The underparts are white, apart from a black double breast band. The upper breast band is bib-like while the lower band is often broken. Sexes are similar. Young birds are more yellowish on the underside.

45. Nilgiri wood pigeon (Columba elphinstonii)

Nilgiri wood pigeon is large pigeon found in the moist deciduous forests and sholas of the Western Ghats in southwestern India. They are mainly frugivorous and forage in the canopy of dense hill forests. They are best identified in the field by their large size, dark colours and the distinctive checkerboard pattern on their nape.

Description:
This pigeon appears dark grey and a black and white patterned patch made of white tipped stiff feathers on the back of the neck is distinctive. The mantle is chestnut. The male has a paler grey crown while the female has a darker grey crown with a pale throat. The most confusable other species is the mountain imperial pigeon but that species has paler underwing coverts. The feet and the base of the bill are red.

46. Emerald dove (Chalcophapsindica)

Emerald dove is a pigeon which is a widespread resident breeding bird in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and east through Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia, to northern and eastern Australia. The dove is also known by the names of green dove and green-winged pigeon. The common emerald dove is the state bird of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Description:

47. Indian yellow tit (Parusaplonotus)

The yellow-cheeked tit is probably its closest relative, and they might be related to the yellow tit. This species is a resident breeder on the Indian subcontinent. It is a common bird in open tropical forests, but does not occur in Sri Lanka. It is an active and agile feeder, taking insects and spiders from the canopy, and sometimes fruit.

Description:
It is an easy tit to recognise in most of India, large in size at 13 cm, with a broad black line (broader in the male) down its otherwise yellow front. The large crest, neck, throat and head are black with yellow cheeks and supercilia. Upperparts are olive-green. It has two white or yellowish wing bars and white outer tail feathers. Females and young birds are duller than males.

48. Jungle myna (Acridotheresfuscus)

Jungle myna is a myna, a member of the starling family. This bird is a common resident breeder in tropical southern Asia from Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India and Burma east to Indonesia. This common passerine is typically found in forest and cultivation. The jungle myna builds a nest in hole. The normal clutch is three to six eggs.

Description:
These 23-centimetre (9.1 in) long birds have grey plumage, darker on the head and wings. There are large white wing patches obvious in flight, and a white tail tip. The head has a forehead tuft. The bill and strong legs are bright yellow, and there is no bare skin around eye. The southern Indian race has a blue iris. The sexes are similar, but juveniles are browner. They are usually found close to water or rice fields. Like most starlings, the jungle myna is fairly omnivorous, eating fruit, grain and insects

49. Crested serpent eagle (Spilornischeela)

Crested serpent eagle is a medium-sized bird of prey that is found in forested habitats across tropicalAsia. Within its widespread range across the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia and East Asia, there are considerable variations and some authorities prefer to treat several of its subspecies as completely separate species.

Description:
This medium-large, dark brown eagle is stocky, with rounded wings and a short tail. Its short black and white fan-shaped nuchal crest gives it a thick-necked appearance. The bare facial skin and feet are yellow. The underside is spotted with white and yellowish-brown. When perched the wing tips do not reach until the tail tip. In soaring flight, the broad and paddle-shaped wings are held in a shallow V. The tail and underside of the flight feathers are black with broad white bars.

50. Common hill myna (Graculareligiosa)

Common hill myna sometimes spelled “mynah” and formerly simply known as hill myna, is the myna most commonly seen in aviculture, where it is often simply referred to by the latter two names.

Description:
This is a stocky jet-black myna, with bright orange-yellow patches of naked skin and fleshy wattles on the side of its head and nape. At about 29 cm length, it is somewhat larger than the common myna. It is overall green-glossed black plumage, purple-tinged on the head and neck. Its large, white wing patches are obvious in flight, but mostly covered when the bird is sitting. The bill and strong legs are bright yellow, and there are yellow wattles on the nape and under the eye.

51. Malabar parakeet (Psittaculacolumboides)

Malabar parakeet is a species of parakeet endemic to the Western Ghats of southern India. Found in small flocks, they fly rapidly in forest clearings while making screeching calls that differ from those of other parakeet species within their distribution range. Their long blue tails tipped in yellow and the dark wings with blue contrast with the dull grey of their head and body. Adult males and females can be easily told apart from the colour of their beak.

Description:
The blue-winged parakeet is bluish grey with a long yellow-tipped tail. The black neck ring is complete in both males and females. The male has a bluish-green lower edge to the black collar and the upper mandible is red with a white tip while the female has an all black bill and has only the black collar. The female looks similar to the female of the plum-headed parakeet which however can be told apart by its broad yellow collar.

52. Mountain imperial pigeon (Duculabadia)

Mountain imperial pigeon is a species of bird in the pigeon and dove familywith a wide range in south-eastern Asia.

Description:
The mountain imperial pigeon is the largest pigeon species in its range at 43–51 cm (17–20 in) long. It has a fairly long tail, broad, rounded wings and slow wing-beats. The head, neck and underparts are vinous-grey with a contrasting white throat and brownish-maroon upperparts and wings, though the upper part of the body can be duller. The underwing is slate-grey and the tail is blackish with a grey horizontal line. The combination the maroon back with the large size give this species a distinctive appearance. Its call consists of a deep, resonant boom that is only detectable at close range.

53. Greater flameback (Chrysocolaptesguttacristatus)

Greaterflameback is a wood pecker species. It occurs widely in the Indian subcontinent, eastwards to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, western and central Java and northeast Borneo.

Description:
The greater flameback is a large woodpecker, at 33 cm in length. It is of typical woodpecker shape, has an erect crest and a long neck. Coloration is highly variable between subspecies; it always has unmarked golden-yellow to dark brown back and wings. The rump is red and the tail is black. The underparts are white with dark markings (chevrons, stripes, or bands), or light brown. The head is whitish with a black pattern, or it is yellow, brown or red. The straight pointed bill is long (longer than the head) and – like the legs and four-toed zygodactyl feet (two toes pointing forward, two backward) – lead-grey. The eyes’ irides are whitish to yellow.

54. Plum-headed parakeet (Psittaculacyanocephala)

Plum-headed parakeet is a parakeet endemic to the Indian Subcontinent. Plum-headed parakeets are found in flocks, the males having a pinkish purple head and the females, a grey head. They fly swiftly with twists and turns accompanied by their distinctive calls.

Description:
The plum-headed parakeet is a mainly green parrot, 33 cm long with a tail up to 22 cm. The male has a red head which shades to purple-blue on the back of the crown, nape and cheeks while the female has blueish-gray head. There is a narrow black neck collar with verdigris below on the nape and a black chin stripe that extends from the lower mandible.

55. Blyth’s reed warbler (Acrocephalusdumetorum)

Blyth’s reed warbler is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It breeds in temperate Asia and easternmost Europe. It is migratory, wintering in India and Sri Lanka. It is one of the most common winter warblers in those countries. It is a rare vagrant to western Europe.

Description:
This small passerinebird is a species found in scrub or clearings, often near water, but it is not found in marshes. 4-6 eggs are laid in a nest in a bush. This is a medium-sized warbler, 12.5-14 cm in length. The adult has a plain brown back and pale underparts. It can easily be confused with reed warbler, marsh warbler and some of the Hippolais warblers. It is most like reed warbler but is greyer on the back, the forehead is less flattened and the bill is less strong and pointed. The sexes are identical, as with most warblers, but young birds are yellower below.

56. Heart-spotted woodpecker (Hemicircuscanente)

Heart-spotted woodpecker is a species of bird in the woodpecker family. They have a contrasting black and white pattern, a distinctively stubby body with a large wedge-shaped head making them easy to identify while their frequent calling make them easy to detect as they forage for invertebrates under the bark of the sleder outer branches of trees.

Description:
A small, uniquely shaped, black and buff woodpecker with a large crest making the head look large for the short body and tail. Both males and females are predominantly black with heart-shaped black spots on white shoulders with broad white scapular patches and barring of flight feathers. The female has the forehead and crown buffy white while it is black on males. The throat is whitish and the underparts are dark olive grey. A tuft of feathers on the back are specialized and are lipid rich which causes the feathers to stick together in preserved specimens.

57. Golden-fronted leaf bird (Chloropsisaurifrons)

Golden-fronted leaf bird is a species of leaf bird. It is a common resident breeder in India, Sri Lanka, and parts of Southeast Asia.

Description:
Its habitat is forest and scrub. It builds its nest in a tree, laying 2-3 eggs. This species eats insects and berries.The adult is green-bodied with a black face and throat bordered with yellow. It has an orange forehead and blue moustachial line, but lacks the blue flight feathers and tail sides of blue-winged leafbird. Young birds have a plain green head.The southern Indian race, C. a. frontalis, has a narrower yellow border to black face. The throat is black and it has a blue sub-moustachial stripe and duller orange forehead.

58. Large-billed leaf warbler (Phylloscopusmagnirostris)

Large-billed leaf warbler is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the “Old World warbler” assemblage.Living in Asia, it winters in the Western Ghats and associated hill ranges. It is found in dense vegetation and is more often heard than seen. The two note dir-tee call with the second note much higher is distinctive. They call often and at regular intervals.

59. Crested goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus)

Crested goshawk is a bird of prey from tropicalAsia. It is related to other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards (or buteos) and harriers, and thus placed in the familyAccipitridae.

Description:
This raptor has short broad wings and a long tail, both adaptations to manoeuvring through trees. It is 30–46 cm in length, with the female much larger than the male. The larger size and a short crest, clearly visible in profile, are the best distinctions from its relative, the besra (A. virgatus).

The male has a dark brown crown, grey head sides and black moustachial and throat stripes. The pale underparts are patterned with rufous streaks on the breast and bars on the belly. The larger female has a browner head and brown underpart streaks and bars. The juvenile has pale fringes to its head feathers, and the underpart background colour is buff rather than white.

60. Jerdon’s leafbird (Chloropsisjerdoni)

Jerdon’sleafbird is a species of leafbird found in forest and woodland in India and Sri Lanka.

Description:
It builds its nest in a tree, and lays 2–3 eggs. This species eats insects, fruit and nectar.The male is green-bodied with a yellow-tinged head, black face and throat. It has a blue moustachial line. The female differs in that it has a greener head and blue throat, and young birds are like the female but without the blue throat patch.Like other leafbirds, the call of Jerdon’sleafbird consists of a rich mixture of imitations of the calls of various other species of birds.

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